A collection of reference posts and links.

Be strong, saith my heart; I am a soldier; I have seen worse sights than this. By

Homer, The Iliad  800 B.C.E.  (via zoeshorrorstory)

So this exact phrasing is from Donna Tartt, The Secret History:

and it’s actually a very loose translation - what Odysseus says to himself, in Book 11.404-410, is:

μοι ἐγὼ τί πάθω; μέγα μὲν κακὸν αἴ κε φέβωμαι
πληθὺν ταρβήσας: τὸ δὲ ῥίγιον αἴ κεν ἁλώω
μοῦνος: τοὺς δ᾽ ἄλλους Δαναοὺς ἐφόβησε Κρονίων.
ἀλλὰ τί μοι ταῦτα φίλος διελέξατο θυμός;
οἶδα γὰρ ὅττι κακοὶ μὲν ἀποίχονται πολέμοιο,
ὃς δέ κ᾽ ἀριστεύῃσι μάχῃ ἔνι τὸν δὲ μάλα χρεὼ
ἑστάμεναι κρατερῶς, τ᾽ ἔβλητ᾽ τ᾽ ἔβαλ᾽ ἄλλον.

or, in the Samuel Butler translation:

"Alas," said he to himself in his dismay, "what will become of me? It is ill if I turn and fly before these odds, but it will be worse if I am left alone and taken prisoner, for the son of Saturn has struck the rest of the Danaans with panic. But why talk to myself in this way? Well do I know that though cowards quit the field, a hero, whether he wound or be wounded, must stand firm and hold his own.”

You can see what Tartt is pulling out - a soldier, “ὃς δέ κ᾽ ἀριστεύῃσι” (one who is heroic/excels) must be strong and hold firm - but I’m not sure where “saith my heart” comes from as Odysseus is addressing his heart, here (that’s the literal translation for “myself”) or “I have seen worse sights than this”

(via plinytheyounger)

Nah, the problem is that the quote is mis-referenced by Tartt in The Secret History. The “be strong, saith my heart” quote is actually Book 20, line 18 of The Odyssey. The Greek is:

τέτλαθι δή, κραδίη: καὶ κύντερον ἄλλο ποτ᾽ ἔτλης

translated by A. T. Murray (because I don’t have any of my physical copies here and that’s the one I could find online easiest) as “Endure, my heart; a worse thing even than this didst thou once endure”

The context being:

but he smote his breast, and rebuked his heart, saying: “Endure, my heart; a worse thing even than this didst thou once endure on that day when the Cyclops, unrestrained in daring, devoured my mighty comrades; but thou didst endure until craft got thee forth from the cave where thou thoughtest to die.”

So he spoke, chiding the heart in his breast, and his heart remained bound within him to endure steadfastly; but he himself lay tossing this way and that.

Her translation’s still pretty loose, but definitely closer than if she were really translating The Iliad.

(And he’s still addressing his heart here, but still it’s a better fit)

Reblogged from tallforesttowers  1,980 notes
philcoulson:

preface

"The series is set 97 years after a devastating nuclear war wiped out almost all life on Earth. The only survivors are the residents of twelve space stations in Earth’s orbit prior to the war, and the descendants of the people on earth who survived the war, called "grounders" by the 100. The space stations banded together to form a single massive station named "The Ark", where about 2,400 people live.[1] Resources are scarce and all crimes no matter their nature or severity are punishable by death ("floating") unless the perpetrator is under 18 years of age. After the Ark’s life support systems are found to be critically failing, one hundred juvenile prisoners are declared "expendable" and sent to the surface in a last ditch attempt to determine if Earth is habitable again."


notes

This is an excellent show that is CURRENTLY AIRING on the CW (having just finished its first season), slated for an expanded second season in the fall of 2014. Get on board now and catch up with season one over the summer! It has a diverse cast, incredible women, fascinating and complex characters, and best of all, everyone is beautiful. Think Lord of the Flies meets Battlestar Galactica. You’ll get sucked in sooner than you know it.


season 1 (x)

01. pilot02. earth skills 03. earth kills04. murphy’s law05. twilight’s last gleaming06. his sister’s keeper07. contents under pressure08. day trip09. unity day10. i am become death11. the calm12. we are grounders, part I13. we are grounders, part II

philcoulson:

preface
"The series is set 97 years after a devastating nuclear war wiped out almost all life on Earth. The only survivors are the residents of twelve space stations in Earth’s orbit prior to the war, and the descendants of the people on earth who survived the war, called "grounders" by the 100. The space stations banded together to form a single massive station named "The Ark", where about 2,400 people live.[1] Resources are scarce and all crimes no matter their nature or severity are punishable by death ("floating") unless the perpetrator is under 18 years of age. After the Ark’s life support systems are found to be critically failing, one hundred juvenile prisoners are declared "expendable" and sent to the surface in a last ditch attempt to determine if Earth is habitable again."
notes
This is an excellent show that is CURRENTLY AIRING on the CW (having just finished its first season), slated for an expanded second season in the fall of 2014. Get on board now and catch up with season one over the summer! It has a diverse cast, incredible women, fascinating and complex characters, and best of all, everyone is beautiful. Think Lord of the Flies meets Battlestar Galactica. You’ll get sucked in sooner than you know it.

codenamesailorb:

DIRECT LINKS TO SAILOR MOON CRYSTAL SIMULCAST PAGES:

If your language is not listed on Niconico, please don’t contact me! I’m just a huge Sailor Moon fan closely following news and the SMC staff on twitter/FB. I’m here to help share news with you as quickly as I can. I don’t work for these companies. If you want to see your language, feel free to contact the big people on top!

I also wanted to note that Hulu/Neon Alley, Crunchyroll, and Niconico are all LEGAL STREAMING sites. So you can watch Sailor Moon Crystal for FREE and LEGALLY. By supporting official, legal simulcasts of Sailor Moon Crystal, you are supporting the show and the staff. If there’s enough popularity, we may see a second season down the road! Sailor Moon Crystal will be following the first arc of the manga (as stated on the official Sailor Moon website) which involves Queen Beryl and the Dark Kingdom. So if you want to possibly see Chibiusa and the outers down the road, please show your support and watch legally for free!!

For more information on streaming via Niconico, please view my old post here.

Follow me on twitter for constant Sailor Moon updates @CodenameSailorB.

ancientpeoples:

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (in Greek, Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda (or Nemesis), step-daughter of King Tyndareus, wife of Menelaus and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War.
The origins of Helen’s myth date back to the Mycenaean age. The first record of her name appears in the poems of Homer, but scholars assume that such myths invented or received by the Mycenaean Greeks made their way to Homer. Her mythological birthplace was the Sparta of the Age of Heroes, which features prominently in the canon of Greek myth: in later ancient Greek memory, the Mycenaean Bronze Age became the age of the Greek heroes. The kings, queens, and heroes of the Trojan Cycle are often related to the gods, since mythic origins gave stature to the Greeks’ heroic ancestors. The fall of Troy came to represent a fall from an illustrious heroic age, remembered for centuries in oral tradition before being written down. Recent archaeological excavations in Greece suggest that modern-day Laconia was a distinct territory in the Late Bronze Age, while the poets narrate that it was a rich kingdom. Archaeologists have unsuccessfully looked for a Mycenaean palatial complex buried beneath present-day Sparta. An important Mycenaean site at the Menelaion was destroyed by ca. 1200 BC, and most other Mycenaean sites in Lakonia also disappear. There is a shrinkage from fifty sites to fifteen in the early twelfth century, and then to fewer in the eleventh century.
In most sources, including the Iliad and the Odyssey, Helen is the daughter of Zeus and Leda, the wife of the Spartan king Tyndareus (no reference given for Helen as the daughter of Leda). Euripides’ play Helen, written in the late 5th century BC, is the earliest source to report the most familiar account of Helen’s birth: that, although her putative father was Tyndareus, she was actually Zeus’ daughter. In the form of a swan, the king of gods was chased by an eagle, and sought refuge with Leda. The swan gained her affection, and the two mated. Leda then produced an egg, from which Helen emerged.
On the other hand, in the Cypria, one of the Cyclic Epics, Helen was the daughter of Zeus and the goddess Nemesis. The date of the Cypria is uncertain, but it is generally thought to preserve traditions that date back to at least the 7th century BC. In the Cypria, Nemesis did not wish to mate with Zeus. She therefore changed shape into various animals as she attempted to flee Zeus, finally becoming a goose. Zeus also transformed himself into a goose and mated with Nemesis, who produced an egg from which Helen was born. 
Pausanias states that in the middle of the 2nd century AD, the remains of an egg-shell, tied up in ribbons, were still suspended from the roof of a temple on the Spartan acropolis. People believed that this was “the famous egg that legend says Leda brought forth”. Pausanias traveled to Sparta to visit the sanctuary, dedicated to Hilaeira and Phoebe, in order to see the relic for himself.
Two Athenians, Theseus and Pirithous, thought that since they were both sons of Gods, both should have divine wives; they thus pledged to help each other abduct two daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen, and Pirithous vowed to marry Persephone, the wife of Hades. Theseus took Helen and left her with his mother Aethra or his associate Aphidnus at Aphidnae or Athens. Theseus and Pirithous then traveled to the underworld, the domain of Hades, to kidnap Persephone. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast, but, as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Helen’s abduction caused an invasion of Athens by Castor and Pollux, who captured Aethra in revenge, and returned their sister to Sparta.
In most accounts of this event, Helen was quite young; Hellanicus of Lesbos said she was seven years old and Diodorus makes her ten years old. On the other hand, Stesichorus said that Iphigeneia was the daughter of Theseus and Helen, which obviously implies that Helen was of childbearing age. In most sources, Iphigeneia is the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, but Duris of Samos and other writers followed Stesichorus’ account.
Ovid’s Heroides give us an idea of how ancient and, in particular, Roman authors imagined Helen in her youth: she is presented as a young princess wrestling naked in the palaestra; an image alluding to a part of girls’ physical education in classical (and not in Mycenaean) Sparta. Sextus Propertius imagines Helen as a girl who practices arms and hunts with her brothers:

[…] or like Helen, on the sands of Eurotas, between Castor and Pollux, one to be victor in boxing, the other with horses: with naked breasts she carried weapons, they say, and did not blush with her divine brothers there.


When it was time for Helen to marry, many kings and princes from around the world came to seek her hand, bringing rich gifts with them, or sent emissaries to do so on their behalf. During the contest, Castor and Pollux had a prominent role in dealing with the suitors, although the final decision was in the hands of Tyndareus. Menelaus, her future husband, did not attend but sent his brother, Agamemnon, to represent him.
There are three available and not entirely consistent lists of suitors, compiled by Pseudo-Apollodorus (31 suitors), Hesiod (11 suitors), and Hyginus (36 suitors), for a total of 45 distinct names. There are only fragments from Hesiod’s poem, so his list would have contained more. Achilles’ absence from the lists is conspicuous, but Hesiod explains that he was too young to take part in the contest. Taken together, the list of suitors matches well with the captains in the Catalog of Ships from the Iliad; however, some of the names may have been placed in the list of Helen’s suitors simply because they went to Troy. It is not unlikely that relatives of a suitor may have joined the war.
Tyndareus was afraid to select a husband for his daughter, or send any of the suitors away, for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus was one of the suitors, but had brought no gifts because he believed he had little chance to win the contest. He thus promised to solve the problem, if Tyndareus in turn would support him in his courting of Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed, and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with him. After the suitors had sworn not to retaliate, Menelaus was chosen to be Helen’s husband. As a sign of the importance of the pact, Tyndareus sacrificed a horse. Helen and Menelaus became rulers of Sparta, after Tyndareus abdicated.
The marriage of Helen and Menelaus marks the beginning of the end of the age of heroes. Concluding the catalog of Helen’s suitors, Hesiod reports Zeus’ plan to obliterate the race of men and the heroes in particular. The Trojan War, caused by Helen’s elopement with Paris, is going to be his means to this end.
Some years later, Paris, a Trojan prince, came to Sparta to claim Helen, in the guise of a supposed diplomatic mission. Before this journey, Paris had been appointed by Zeus to judge the most beautiful goddess;Hera, Athena, or Aphrodite. In order to earn his favour, Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in the world. Swayed by Aphrodite’s offer, Paris chose her as the most beautiful of the goddesses, earning the wrath of Athena and Hera.
Although Helen is sometimes depicted as being raped by Paris, Ancient Greek sources are often elliptical and contradictory. Herodotus states that Helen was abducted, but the Cypria simply mentions that, after giving Helen gifts, “Aphrodite brings the Spartan queen together with the Prince of Troy.” Sappho argues that Helen willingly left behind Menelaus and Hermione, her nine-year-old daughter, to be with Paris:

Some say a host of horsemen, others of infantry and othersof ships, is the most beautiful thing on the dark earthbut I say, it is what you loveFull easy it is to make this understood of one and all: forshe that far surpassed all mortals in beauty, Helen hermost noble husbandDeserted, and went sailing to Troy, with never a thought forher daughter and dear parents.

Dio Chrysostom gives a completely different account of the story, questioning Homer’s credibility: after Agamemnon had married Helen’s sister, Klytaemnestra, Tyndareus sought Helen’s hand for Menelaus on account of political reasons. However, Helen was sought by many suitors, who came from far and near, among them Paris who surpassed all the others and won the favor of Tyndareus and his sons. Thus he won her fairly and took her away to Troia, with the full consent of her natural protectors. Cypria narrate that in just three days Paris and Helen reached Troy. Homer narrates that during a brief stop-over in the small island of Kranai, where, according to Iliad, the two lovers consummated their passion. On the other hand, Cypria note that this happened the night before they left Sparta.
When he discovered that his wife was missing, Menelaus called upon all the other suitors to fulfill their oaths, thus beginning the Trojan War. The Greek fleet gathered in Aulis, but the ships could not sail, because there was no wind. Artemis was enraged with a sacrilegious act of the Greeks, and only the sacrifice of Agamemnon’s daughter, Iphigenia, could appease her. In Euripides Iphigenia in Aulis, Clytemnestra, Iphigenia’s mother and Helen’s sister, begs her husband to reconsider his decision, calling Helen a “wicked woman”. Clytemnestra (unsuccessfully) warns Agamemnon that sacrificing Iphigenia for Helen’s sake is, “buying what we most detest with what we hold most dear”.
Before the opening of hostilities, the Greeks dispatched a delegation to the Trojans under Odysseus and Menelaus; they endeavored to persuade Priam to hand Helen back without success. A popular theme, The Request of Helen (Helenes Apaitesis, Ἑλένης Ἀπαίτησις) was the subject of a drama by Sophocles, now lost.
Homer paints a poignant, lonely picture of Helen in Troy. She is filled with self-distaste and regret for what she has caused; by the end of the war, the Trojans have come to hate her. When Hector dies, she is the third mourner at his funeral, and she says that, of all the Trojans, Hector and Priam alone were always kind to her:

Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart;for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy that is gentle to me or kind;but all men shudder at me.


These bitter words reveal that Helen gradually realized Paris’ weaknesses, and she decided to ally herself with Hector. There is an affectionate relationship between the two of them, and Helen has harsh words to say for Paris, when she compares the two brothers:

Howbeit, seeing the gods thus ordained these ills, would that I had been wife to a better man,that could feel the indignation of his fellows and their many revilings. […] But come now, enter in, and sit thee upon this chair, my brother,since above all others has trouble encompassed thy heart because of shameless me, and the folly of Alexander.

During the fall of Troy, Helen’s role is ambiguous. In Virgil’s Aeneid, Deiphobus gives an account of Helen’s treacherous stance: when the Trojan Horse was admitted into the city, she feigned Bacchic rites, leading a chorus of Trojan women, and, holding a torch among them, she signaled to the Greeks from the city’s central tower. In Odyssey, however, Homer narrates a different story: Helen circled the Horse three times, and she imitated the voices of the Greek women left behind at home—she thus tortured the men inside (including Odysseus and Menelaus) with the memory of their loved ones, and brought them to the brink of destruction.
After the death of Hector and Paris, Helen became the paramour of their younger brother, Deiphobus; but when the sack of Troy began, she hid her new husband’s sword, and left him to the mercy of Menelaus and Odysseus. In Aeneid, Aeneas meets the mutilated Deiphobus in Hades; his wounds serve as a testimony to his ignominious end, abetted by Helen’s final act of treachery.
However, Helen’s portraits in Troy seem to contradict each other. From one side, we read about the treacherous Helen who simulated Bacchic rites and rejoiced over the carnage of Trojans. On the other hand, there is another Helen, lonely and helpless; desperate to find sanctuary, while Troy is on fire. Stesichorus narrates that both Greeks and Trojans gathered to stone her to death. When Menelaus finally found her, he raised his sword to kill her. He had demanded that only he should slay his unfaithful wife; but, when he was ready to do so, she dropped her robe from her shoulders, and the sight of her beauty caused him to let the sword drop from his hand. Electra wails:

Alas for my troubles! Can it be that her beauty has blunted their swords?


Helen returned to Sparta and lived for a time with Menelaus, where she was encountered by Telemachus in The Odyssey. According to another version, used by Euripides in his play Orestes, Helen had long ago left the mortal world by then, having been taken up to Olympus almost immediately after Menelaus’ return.
According to Pausanias the geographer (3.19.9–10): “The account of the Rhodians is different. They say that when Menelaus was dead, and Orestes still a wanderer, Helen was driven out byNicostratus and Megapenthes and came to Rhodes, where she had a friend in Polyxo, the wife of Tlepolemus. For Polyxo, they say, was an Argive by descent, and when she was already married to Tlepolemus, shared his flight to Rhodes. At the time she was queen of the island, having been left with an orphan boy. They say that this Polyxo desired to avenge the death of Tlepolemus on Helen, now that she had her in her power. So she sent against her when she was bathing handmaidens dressed up as Furies, who seized Helen and hanged her on a tree, and for this reason the Rhodians have a sanctuary of Helen of the Tree.”
Tlepolemus was a son of Heracles and Astyoche. Astyoche was a daughter of Phylas, King of Ephyra who was killed by Heracles. Tlepolemus was killed by Sarpedon on the first day of fighting in the Iliad. Nicostratus was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Pieris, an Aetolian slave. Megapenthes was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Tereis, no further origin.

ancientpeoples:

In Greek mythologyHelen of Troy (in GreekἙλένηHelénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda (or Nemesis), step-daughter of King Tyndareus, wife of Menelaus and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War.

The origins of Helen’s myth date back to the Mycenaean age. The first record of her name appears in the poems of Homer, but scholars assume that such myths invented or received by the Mycenaean Greeks made their way to Homer. Her mythological birthplace was the Sparta of the Age of Heroes, which features prominently in the canon of Greek myth: in later ancient Greek memory, the Mycenaean Bronze Age became the age of the Greek heroes. The kings, queens, and heroes of the Trojan Cycle are often related to the gods, since mythic origins gave stature to the Greeks’ heroic ancestors. The fall of Troy came to represent a fall from an illustrious heroic age, remembered for centuries in oral tradition before being written down. Recent archaeological excavations in Greece suggest that modern-day Laconia was a distinct territory in the Late Bronze Age, while the poets narrate that it was a rich kingdom. Archaeologists have unsuccessfully looked for a Mycenaean palatial complex buried beneath present-day Sparta. An important Mycenaean site at the Menelaion was destroyed by ca. 1200 BC, and most other Mycenaean sites in Lakonia also disappear. There is a shrinkage from fifty sites to fifteen in the early twelfth century, and then to fewer in the eleventh century.

In most sources, including the Iliad and the Odyssey, Helen is the daughter of Zeus and Leda, the wife of the Spartan king Tyndareus (no reference given for Helen as the daughter of Leda). Euripides’ play Helen, written in the late 5th century BC, is the earliest source to report the most familiar account of Helen’s birth: that, although her putative father was Tyndareus, she was actually Zeus’ daughter. In the form of a swan, the king of gods was chased by an eagle, and sought refuge with Leda. The swan gained her affection, and the two mated. Leda then produced an egg, from which Helen emerged.

On the other hand, in the Cypria, one of the Cyclic Epics, Helen was the daughter of Zeus and the goddess Nemesis. The date of the Cypria is uncertain, but it is generally thought to preserve traditions that date back to at least the 7th century BC. In the Cypria, Nemesis did not wish to mate with Zeus. She therefore changed shape into various animals as she attempted to flee Zeus, finally becoming a goose. Zeus also transformed himself into a goose and mated with Nemesis, who produced an egg from which Helen was born. 

Pausanias states that in the middle of the 2nd century AD, the remains of an egg-shell, tied up in ribbons, were still suspended from the roof of a temple on the Spartan acropolis. People believed that this was “the famous egg that legend says Leda brought forth”. Pausanias traveled to Sparta to visit the sanctuary, dedicated to Hilaeira and Phoebe, in order to see the relic for himself.

Two Athenians, Theseus and Pirithous, thought that since they were both sons of Gods, both should have divine wives; they thus pledged to help each other abduct two daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen, and Pirithous vowed to marry Persephone, the wife of Hades. Theseus took Helen and left her with his mother Aethra or his associate Aphidnus at Aphidnae or Athens. Theseus and Pirithous then traveled to the underworld, the domain of Hades, to kidnap Persephone. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast, but, as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Helen’s abduction caused an invasion of Athens by Castor and Pollux, who captured Aethra in revenge, and returned their sister to Sparta.

In most accounts of this event, Helen was quite young; Hellanicus of Lesbos said she was seven years old and Diodorus makes her ten years old. On the other hand, Stesichorus said that Iphigeneia was the daughter of Theseus and Helen, which obviously implies that Helen was of childbearing age. In most sources, Iphigeneia is the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, but Duris of Samos and other writers followed Stesichorus’ account.

Ovid’s Heroides give us an idea of how ancient and, in particular, Roman authors imagined Helen in her youth: she is presented as a young princess wrestling naked in the palaestra; an image alluding to a part of girls’ physical education in classical (and not in Mycenaean) Sparta. Sextus Propertius imagines Helen as a girl who practices arms and hunts with her brothers:

[…] or like Helen, on the sands of Eurotas, between Castor and Pollux, one to be victor in boxing, the other with horses: with naked breasts she carried weapons, they say, and did not blush with her divine brothers there.

When it was time for Helen to marry, many kings and princes from around the world came to seek her hand, bringing rich gifts with them, or sent emissaries to do so on their behalf. During the contest, Castor and Pollux had a prominent role in dealing with the suitors, although the final decision was in the hands of Tyndareus. Menelaus, her future husband, did not attend but sent his brother, Agamemnon, to represent him.

There are three available and not entirely consistent lists of suitors, compiled by Pseudo-Apollodorus (31 suitors), Hesiod (11 suitors), and Hyginus (36 suitors), for a total of 45 distinct names. There are only fragments from Hesiod’s poem, so his list would have contained more. Achilles’ absence from the lists is conspicuous, but Hesiod explains that he was too young to take part in the contest. Taken together, the list of suitors matches well with the captains in the Catalog of Ships from the Iliad; however, some of the names may have been placed in the list of Helen’s suitors simply because they went to Troy. It is not unlikely that relatives of a suitor may have joined the war.

Tyndareus was afraid to select a husband for his daughter, or send any of the suitors away, for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus was one of the suitors, but had brought no gifts because he believed he had little chance to win the contest. He thus promised to solve the problem, if Tyndareus in turn would support him in his courting of Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed, and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with him. After the suitors had sworn not to retaliate, Menelaus was chosen to be Helen’s husband. As a sign of the importance of the pact, Tyndareus sacrificed a horse. Helen and Menelaus became rulers of Sparta, after Tyndareus abdicated.

The marriage of Helen and Menelaus marks the beginning of the end of the age of heroes. Concluding the catalog of Helen’s suitors, Hesiod reports Zeus’ plan to obliterate the race of men and the heroes in particular. The Trojan War, caused by Helen’s elopement with Paris, is going to be his means to this end.

Some years later, Paris, a Trojan prince, came to Sparta to claim Helen, in the guise of a supposed diplomatic mission. Before this journey, Paris had been appointed by Zeus to judge the most beautiful goddess;Hera, Athena, or Aphrodite. In order to earn his favour, Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in the world. Swayed by Aphrodite’s offer, Paris chose her as the most beautiful of the goddesses, earning the wrath of Athena and Hera.

Although Helen is sometimes depicted as being raped by Paris, Ancient Greek sources are often elliptical and contradictory. Herodotus states that Helen was abducted, but the Cypria simply mentions that, after giving Helen gifts, “Aphrodite brings the Spartan queen together with the Prince of Troy.” Sappho argues that Helen willingly left behind Menelaus and Hermione, her nine-year-old daughter, to be with Paris:

Some say a host of horsemen, others of infantry and othersof ships, is the most beautiful thing on the dark earthbut I say, it is what you loveFull easy it is to make this understood of one and all: forshe that far surpassed all mortals in beauty, Helen hermost noble husbandDeserted, and went sailing to Troy, with never a thought forher daughter and dear parents.

Dio Chrysostom gives a completely different account of the story, questioning Homer’s credibility: after Agamemnon had married Helen’s sister, Klytaemnestra, Tyndareus sought Helen’s hand for Menelaus on account of political reasons. However, Helen was sought by many suitors, who came from far and near, among them Paris who surpassed all the others and won the favor of Tyndareus and his sons. Thus he won her fairly and took her away to Troia, with the full consent of her natural protectors. Cypria narrate that in just three days Paris and Helen reached Troy. Homer narrates that during a brief stop-over in the small island of Kranai, where, according to Iliad, the two lovers consummated their passion. On the other hand, Cypria note that this happened the night before they left Sparta.

When he discovered that his wife was missing, Menelaus called upon all the other suitors to fulfill their oaths, thus beginning the Trojan War. The Greek fleet gathered in Aulis, but the ships could not sail, because there was no wind. Artemis was enraged with a sacrilegious act of the Greeks, and only the sacrifice of Agamemnon’s daughter, Iphigenia, could appease her. In Euripides Iphigenia in Aulis, Clytemnestra, Iphigenia’s mother and Helen’s sister, begs her husband to reconsider his decision, calling Helen a “wicked woman”. Clytemnestra (unsuccessfully) warns Agamemnon that sacrificing Iphigenia for Helen’s sake is, “buying what we most detest with what we hold most dear”.

Before the opening of hostilities, the Greeks dispatched a delegation to the Trojans under Odysseus and Menelaus; they endeavored to persuade Priam to hand Helen back without success. A popular theme, The Request of Helen (Helenes Apaitesis, Ἑλένης Ἀπαίτησις) was the subject of a drama by Sophocles, now lost.

Homer paints a poignant, lonely picture of Helen in Troy. She is filled with self-distaste and regret for what she has caused; by the end of the war, the Trojans have come to hate her. When Hector dies, she is the third mourner at his funeral, and she says that, of all the Trojans, Hector and Priam alone were always kind to her:

Wherefore I wail alike for thee and for my hapless self with grief at heart;for no longer have I anyone beside in broad Troy that is gentle to me or kind;but all men shudder at me.

These bitter words reveal that Helen gradually realized Paris’ weaknesses, and she decided to ally herself with Hector. There is an affectionate relationship between the two of them, and Helen has harsh words to say for Paris, when she compares the two brothers:

Howbeit, seeing the gods thus ordained these ills, would that I had been wife to a better man,that could feel the indignation of his fellows and their many revilings. […] But come now, enter in, and sit thee upon this chair, my brother,since above all others has trouble encompassed thy heart because of shameless me, and the folly of Alexander.

During the fall of Troy, Helen’s role is ambiguous. In Virgil’s Aeneid, Deiphobus gives an account of Helen’s treacherous stance: when the Trojan Horse was admitted into the city, she feigned Bacchic rites, leading a chorus of Trojan women, and, holding a torch among them, she signaled to the Greeks from the city’s central tower. In Odyssey, however, Homer narrates a different story: Helen circled the Horse three times, and she imitated the voices of the Greek women left behind at home—she thus tortured the men inside (including Odysseus and Menelaus) with the memory of their loved ones, and brought them to the brink of destruction.

After the death of Hector and Paris, Helen became the paramour of their younger brother, Deiphobus; but when the sack of Troy began, she hid her new husband’s sword, and left him to the mercy of Menelaus and Odysseus. In Aeneid, Aeneas meets the mutilated Deiphobus in Hades; his wounds serve as a testimony to his ignominious end, abetted by Helen’s final act of treachery.

However, Helen’s portraits in Troy seem to contradict each other. From one side, we read about the treacherous Helen who simulated Bacchic rites and rejoiced over the carnage of Trojans. On the other hand, there is another Helen, lonely and helpless; desperate to find sanctuary, while Troy is on fire. Stesichorus narrates that both Greeks and Trojans gathered to stone her to death. When Menelaus finally found her, he raised his sword to kill her. He had demanded that only he should slay his unfaithful wife; but, when he was ready to do so, she dropped her robe from her shoulders, and the sight of her beauty caused him to let the sword drop from his hand. Electra wails:

Alas for my troubles! Can it be that her beauty has blunted their swords?

Helen returned to Sparta and lived for a time with Menelaus, where she was encountered by Telemachus in The Odyssey. According to another version, used by Euripides in his play Orestes, Helen had long ago left the mortal world by then, having been taken up to Olympus almost immediately after Menelaus’ return.

According to Pausanias the geographer (3.19.9–10): “The account of the Rhodians is different. They say that when Menelaus was dead, and Orestes still a wanderer, Helen was driven out byNicostratus and Megapenthes and came to Rhodes, where she had a friend in Polyxo, the wife of Tlepolemus. For Polyxo, they say, was an Argive by descent, and when she was already married to Tlepolemus, shared his flight to Rhodes. At the time she was queen of the island, having been left with an orphan boy. They say that this Polyxo desired to avenge the death of Tlepolemus on Helen, now that she had her in her power. So she sent against her when she was bathing handmaidens dressed up as Furies, who seized Helen and hanged her on a tree, and for this reason the Rhodians have a sanctuary of Helen of the Tree.”

Tlepolemus was a son of Heracles and Astyoche. Astyoche was a daughter of Phylas, King of Ephyra who was killed by Heracles. Tlepolemus was killed by Sarpedon on the first day of fighting in the Iliad. Nicostratus was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Pieris, an Aetolian slave. Megapenthes was a son of Menelaus by his concubine Tereis, no further origin.

Reblogged from thewritingcafe  16,243 notes
fashioninfographics:

Visual Shoe Dictionary
More Visual Glossaries (for Her): Backpacks / Bags / Bra Types / Hats / Belt knots / Coats / Collars / Darts / Dress Shapes / Dress Silhouettes / Eyeglass frames / Eyeliner Strokes / Hangers / Harem Pants / Heels / Lingerie / Nail shapes / Necklaces / Necklines /  Puffy Sleeves / Shoes / Shorts / Silhouettes / Skirts / Tartans / Tops / Underwear / Vintage Hats / Waistlines / Wool
Via
Reblogged from jessaminelovelace  277 notes

raspberrystars:

OH WHAT IS THIS? A LINK TO GO WATCH RIGHT NOW? I’M GOING TO CLICK IT!

Yo! This series is just completely brilliant and deserves more views, so you should go watch it right this moment (or reblog this so you’ll remember and watch it in the morning; whatever works for you). Here are a few more links that will be helpful in getting you on the NMTD train:

Channels:

Other Pages:

They’ve also got various in-canon social media sites, which I’m not going to link here, since they’re not necessary to the plot (another thing I love about this show - the soical media is a fun way to get a bonus perspective into who the characters are, but you don’t need it to keep up with the plot). Those pages can all be found on the NMTD tumblr page, and are fun to look over once you’ve watched the series.

I’ll shut up in a moment, but I just want to say this one more time: Nothing Much To Do is a smart, funny, pretty, and just generally great webseries made by people who seem lovely and clearly have a excellent handle on their storytelling. This is a really amazing project that truly needs more recognition.

And with that, I’m going to bed

Reblogged from tallforesttowers  1,518 notes
raddane:

The Amazing Spider-Man (2012)
Anastasia (1997)
Beauty and the Beast (1991)
The Blind Side (2009)
Brave (2012)
Breaking Dawn [Part I] (2011)
Breaking Dawn [Part II] (2012)
Camp Takota (2014) 
Catching Fire (2013)
Disney’s Tower of Terror (1997)
Eclipse (2010)
Endless Love (2014)
Finding Nemo (2003)
The Hunger Games (2012)
Insidious (2010)
Insidious: Chapter 2 (2013)
It’s Kind of A Funny Story(2010)
Kill Your Darlings (2013) 
Lilo and Stitch (2002)
Monte Carlo (2011)
New Moon (2009)
Pitch Perfect (2012)
The Place Beyond the Pines (2012)
Project X(2012) 
The Purge(2013)  
A Series of Unfortunate Events (2004)
Silence of the Lambs (1991) 
Soul Surfer (2011)
Spirit: Stallion of the Cimmaron (2002)
Spring Breakers (2012) 
Superbad(2007) 
The To Do List(2013) 
Treasure Planet (2002)
Twilight (2008)
Vampire Academy (2014)
We’re the Millers(2013) 
17 Again(2009)
21 Jump Street (2012)
50 / 50(2011)
(500) Days of Summer(2009)
If there is a link that doesn't work or there is a movie that you want 
to see that isn't on the list or you can't figure out how to play the 
movie, message me and I will do my best to fix it for you :) Last Updated: July 13th, 2014
Reblogged from ladysaviours  39,801 notes
sixpenceee:
THE UP SERIES: It follows the lives of 14 children through their lives interviewing them every seven years. It’s amazing to see how they change and where they go. It shows that personality traits do not tend to be very static. Being introverted at 18 doesn’t determine how you’ll be at 32. A girl on there around 20 was totally against having a family and was very cynical about relationships and marriage. Next interview, she was happily wed with children. I link you to 7 UP, which is the first documentary in the series. 
QUEEN OF VERSAILLES:If you have any interest in the SUPER RICH of America and how absolutely delusional they can be, then this documentary will blow your mind. It’s a great window into the lives of people who literally have everything a person could need. Even when they loose everything, they’re entirely incapable of believing that they’re a normal citizen.
THE ACT OF KILLING: One review describes it as: “This is the most gut-wrenching film I’ve ever seen. It actually makes you understand the nature and true face of evil, and it’s terrifying because it’s so, so normal. After watching it you know that in some other life, you could be him.”
BABIES: It shows the different ways, different cultures raise their children. It shows how different but similar we all are at the end. They documentary follows 4 different babies, from Mongalia, to Tokyo, to Namibia and then the U.S
INSIDE NORTH KOREA: An eye-opening film that shows you the truth about a hidden country 
TOUCHING THE VOID: A documentary about two mountain climbers who have an accident on their way back. As one review described it: “Better than any fictional suspense film. Just unreal. You know throughout that the two climbers lived because you’re sitting there watching them narrate, but at times you just can’t believe it.”
THE COVE: A 2009 documentary film that analyzes and questions dolphin hunting practices in Japan. One review described it as “an impeccably crafted, suspenseful expose of the covert slaughter of dolphins in Japan.”
THIS IS WHAT WINNING LOOKS LIKE: The documentary follows U.S. Marines as they train Afghan security forces, showing their ineptitude, drug abuse, sexual misconduct, and corruption as well as the reduced role of US Marines due to the troop withdrawal.
BBC PLANET EARTH (All 11 Episodes): An HD exploration of our world. You’ll just love everything about this, trust me. 
JESUS CAMP: About a Christian summer camp, where children spend their summers being taught that they have “prophetic gifts” and can “take back America for Christ”. This documentary led to the shut down of this summer camp. 
You may also like 10 Disturbing Documentaries
Feel free to add to this list!

sixpenceee:

  1. THE UP SERIES: It follows the lives of 14 children through their lives interviewing them every seven years. It’s amazing to see how they change and where they go. It shows that personality traits do not tend to be very static. Being introverted at 18 doesn’t determine how you’ll be at 32. A girl on there around 20 was totally against having a family and was very cynical about relationships and marriage. Next interview, she was happily wed with children. I link you to 7 UP, which is the first documentary in the series. 
  2. QUEEN OF VERSAILLES:If you have any interest in the SUPER RICH of America and how absolutely delusional they can be, then this documentary will blow your mind. It’s a great window into the lives of people who literally have everything a person could need. Even when they loose everything, they’re entirely incapable of believing that they’re a normal citizen.
  3. THE ACT OF KILLINGOne review describes it as: “This is the most gut-wrenching film I’ve ever seen. It actually makes you understand the nature and true face of evil, and it’s terrifying because it’s so, so normal. After watching it you know that in some other life, you could be him.”
  4. BABIESIt shows the different ways, different cultures raise their children. It shows how different but similar we all are at the end. They documentary follows 4 different babies, from Mongalia, to Tokyo, to Namibia and then the U.S
  5. INSIDE NORTH KOREA: An eye-opening film that shows you the truth about a hidden country 
  6. TOUCHING THE VOIDA documentary about two mountain climbers who have an accident on their way back. As one review described it: “Better than any fictional suspense film. Just unreal. You know throughout that the two climbers lived because you’re sitting there watching them narrate, but at times you just can’t believe it.”
  7. THE COVE: A 2009 documentary film that analyzes and questions dolphin hunting practices in Japan. One review described it as “an impeccably crafted, suspenseful expose of the covert slaughter of dolphins in Japan.”
  8. THIS IS WHAT WINNING LOOKS LIKEThe documentary follows U.S. Marines as they train Afghan security forces, showing their ineptitude, drug abuse, sexual misconduct, and corruption as well as the reduced role of US Marines due to the troop withdrawal.
  9. BBC PLANET EARTH (All 11 Episodes): An HD exploration of our world. You’ll just love everything about this, trust me. 
  10. JESUS CAMP: About a Christian summer camp, where children spend their summers being taught that they have “prophetic gifts” and can “take back America for Christ”. This documentary led to the shut down of this summer camp. 

You may also like 10 Disturbing Documentaries

Feel free to add to this list!